COMMAGENE, small kingdom on the upper Euphrates, between Cilicia and Armenia (modern southeastern Turkey). In 17 C.E. Commagene became a Roman province. However, the monarchy was restored by Claudius (41) and Antiochus IV Epiphanes reigned there until 72, when the land was reannexed to Syria by Vespasian. Several marital ties existed between the rulers of Commagene and the Herods of Judea. Tigranes, great-grandson of Herod the Great, married his son Alexander to Jotape, daughter of King Antiochus of Comma-gene. Drusilla, daughter of Agrippa I, was to marry Epiphanes, the son of Antiochus, but this agreement was canceled when Epiphanes refused to convert to Judaism. Antiochus of Commagene was among the kings entertained by Agrippa I at Tiberias, a gathering that aroused the suspicions of Marsus, Roman governor of Syria. During the Jewish rebellion of 66–70 C.E., contingents from Commagene were among those which fought for Rome. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Jos., Wars, 2:500; 3:68; 5:461; 7:219–25; Jos., Ant., 18:53, 140; 19:276, 338, 355; 20:139; Klausner, Bayit Sheni, 4 (19502), 292. (Isaiah Gafni)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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